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Why NTSC and PAL Still Matter With HDTV

How Are Digital TV and HDTV Connected to Analog Television Standards?

Even with the introduction and acceptance of digital TV and HDTV broadcast and source devices (such as Blu-ray Disc players and streaming media), the old barriers to a universal video standard have not been removed. This article explains why the NTSC and PAL standards are still important.

This information applies to TVs from various manufacturers, including but not limited to LG, Samsung, Panasonic, Sony and Vizio.

frame rate

While video is now primarily digital, the frame rate used in analog video systems is included in digital TV and HDTV standards. In video (analogue, HD and 4K Ultra HD), the images displayed on the screen appear as full-frame, as in the movie. However, there are differences in the way frames are broadcast by broadcasters, streamed or transmitted via physical media devices, and displayed on a screen.

Lines and Pixels

Live or recorded video footage consists of raster lines or pixel lines. In the movie, the entire image is displayed at once. In contrast, lines of pixels or lines in a video image appear on the screen, starting at the top of the screen and moving to the bottom. These lines are displayed in interlaced or progressive format.

SAMSUNG

Interlaced or interlaced divides the lines into two areas. Odd lines or pixel lines are displayed first, and then even lines or pixel lines are displayed, creating a full frame.

progressive scan displays the lines sequentially, rather than passing them as two alternate fields. This means that rows or rows of odd and even pixels are displayed in numerical order.

The number of vertical lines or pixel lines determines the image detail. The more lines an image has, the more detail it has. The number of lines is fixed within a system.

NTSC and PAL

The two main analog video systems are NTSC and PAL.

NTSC is a line of 60 fields, 525 lines or pixels at 30 frames per second in a 60 Hz system for transmitting and displaying video images. Each frame is transmitted in two fields of 262 lines or pixel lines displayed interlaced. The two fields are combined so that each frame is displayed with 525 lines or pixel lines. NTSC is the official analog video standard in the USA, Canada, Mexico, parts of Central and South America, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.

PAL is the world’s most dominant format for analog TV broadcasting and analog video display. 625 lines or pixels is 50 fields at 25 frames per second, 50Hz system. Like NTSC, the signal is interwoven into two fields, each of 312 lines or pixel lines. Because fewer frames (25) per second are displayed, a slight flicker can sometimes be noticed in the image, such as flickering in the projected movie. However, PAL has slightly higher resolution and better color stability than NTSC. Countries with roots in the PAL system include the UK, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy, China, India, Australia, most of Africa and the Middle East.

NTSC PAL SECAM Table

Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain

Digital TV/HDTV and NTSC/PAL frame rates

Frame rate is the common denominator of both systems, although increasing the resolution of high-definition and digital video and broadcast software content standards goes a step further when comparing HDTV with NTSC and PAL analog standards.

In NTSC-based countries, 30 individual frames are displayed every second (1/30th of a second full frame). In PAL-based countries, 25 individual frames are displayed every second (one full frame is displayed every 1/25th of a second). These frames are displayed using the interlaced scan method (480i or 1080i) or progressive scan method (480p, 720p or 1080p).

Where digital and HDTV evolved from NTSC, if the frames are transmitted as an interlaced image (1080i), each frame consists of two fields, each displayed every 60 seconds and a full frame displayed every 30 seconds using NTSC-30. second frame rate. If the frame is transmitted in progressive scan format (720p or 1080p), it will be displayed twice every 30 seconds.

Frame rate HDTV and PAL-based digital TV

Where digital and HDTV evolved from PAL is where frames are transmitted as an interlaced image (1080i), each frame consists of two fields, each displayed every 50 seconds and a full frame every 25 seconds using a PAL-. frame rate of 25 frames per second.

If the frame is transmitted in progressive scan format (720p or 1080p), it will be displayed twice every 25 seconds.

Underline

Although digital TV, HDTV and Ultra HD are a big step forward for what you see on a TV or projection screen, they still have their roots in analog video standards that are over 65 years old.

As a result, there are differences in the digital and HDTV standards in use around the world, which strengthens the barrier to a world-class video standard.

Additionally, while the conversion remains digital and HD-only, many still have NTSC and PAL-based video playback devices such as VCRs, analog cameras, and non-HDMI-equipped DVD players connected to HDTVs (and 4K Ultra TVs). HD).

Even in formats like Blu-ray, there are cases where the main movie or video content may be HD and some additional video sources may be in standard definition NTSC or PAL formats.

DVDs are still made in NTSC or PAL formats.

While 4K content is now widely available via streaming and Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc, 4K TV broadcast standards are in the early stages of implementation. 4K capable TVs must support analog video formats as long as analog video playback devices are in use.

8K resolution streaming and streaming is also a thing now, although the high price tag hinders its mainstream adoption.

You may finally no longer use analog video devices, but that day has yet to come.


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Why NTSC and PAL Still Matter With HDTV

How digital TV and HDTV are linked to analog television standards

Even with the introduction and acceptance of digital TV and HDTV broadcasting and source devices (such as Blu-ray Disc players and media streaming), the old barriers to a universal video standard have not been removed. This article explains why the NTSC and PAL standards still matter.

This information applies to TVs from a variety of manufacturers, including, but not limited to, LG, Samsung, Panasonic, Sony, and Vizio.
Frame Rate

Although video is now mostly digital, the frame rate used in analog video systems is incorporated into digital TV and HDTV standards. In video (analog, HD, and 4K Ultra HD), as in film, the images viewed on the screen look like complete frames. However, there are differences in the way frames are transmitted by broadcasters, transferred through streaming or physical media devices, and displayed on a screen.

Lines and Pixels

Video images that are broadcast live or recorded are composed of scan lines or pixel rows. In film, the whole image displays at once. In contrast, the lines or pixel rows in a video image display across the screen, starting at the top of the screen and moving to the bottom. These rows display in either an interlaced or progressive format.

Samsung
Interlacing or interlaced scan splits the lines into two fields. Odd-numbered lines or pixel rows display first, and even-numbered lines or pixel rows display next, producing a complete frame.

Progressive scan displays rows sequentially instead of transmitting rows as two alternate fields. This means both odd and even-numbered lines or pixel rows display in numerical sequence.

The number of vertical lines or pixel rows dictates the image detail. The more lines in an image, the more detail. The number of lines is fixed within a system.

NTSC and PAL

The two main analog video systems are NTSC and PAL.

NTSC is a 525-line or pixel row, 60 fields with 30 frames-per-second, at 60 Hz system for transmission and display of video images. Each frame is transmitted in two fields of 262 lines or pixel rows that display alternately (interlaced). The two fields are combined, so each frame displays with 525 lines or pixel rows. NTSC is the official analog video standard in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, some parts of Central and South America, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.

PAL is the dominant format in the world for analog TV broadcasting and analog video display. It’s a 625 line or pixel row, 50 fields with 25 frames a second, 50Hz system. Like NTSC, the signal is interlaced into two fields, composed of 312 lines or pixel rows each. Since fewer frames (25) display per second, a slight flicker in the image is sometimes noticeable, like the flicker on projected film. However, PAL has a slightly higher resolution and better color stability than NTSC. Countries with roots in the PAL system include the U.K., Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy, China, India, Australia, most of Africa, and the Middle East.

Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain DigitalTV/HDTV and NTSC/PAL Frame Rates

Although the increased resolution of digital and high-definition broadcast and video software content standards is a step up when comparing HDTV to analog NTSC and PAL standards, the frame rate is the common foundation of both systems.

In NTSC-based countries, 30 separate frames display every second (one complete frame every 1/30th of a second). In PAL-based countries, 25 separate frames display every second (one complete frame displays every 1/25th of a second). These frames display using either the interlaced scan method (480i or 1080i) or the progressive scan method (480p, 720p, or 1080p).

Where digital and HDTV evolved from NTSC is if frames transmit as an interlaced image (1080i), each frame is composed of two fields, each displays every 60th of a second, and a complete frame displays every 30th of a second, using an NTSC-based 30 frames-per-second frame rate. If the frame is transmitted in the progressive scan format (720p or 1080p), it displays twice every 30th of a second.

PAL-Based Digital TV and HDTV Frame Rate

Where digital and HDTV evolved from PAL is if frames transmit as an interlaced image (1080i), each frame is composed of two fields, each displays every 50th of a second, and a complete frame displays every 25th of a second, using a PAL-based 25 frames-per-second frame rate.

If the frame transmits in the progressive scan format (720p or 1080p), it displays twice every 25th of a second.

The Bottom Line

Digital TV, HDTV, and Ultra HD, although a big leap forward in what you see on a TV or projection screen, still has roots in analog video standards that are more than 65 years old.

As a result, there are differences in digital and HDTV standards in use throughout the world, reinforcing the barrier to a worldwide video standard.

Also, as conversion continues towards digital and HD-only transmission, many still have NTSC and PAL-based video playback devices, such as VCRs, analog camcorders, and non-HDMI equipped DVD players plugged into HDTVs (and 4K Ultra HD TVs).

Even with formats such as Blu-ray, there are cases where the film or main video content may be in HD, and some of the supplementary video features may be in the standard resolution NTSC or PAL formats.

DVDs are still made in either the NTSC or PAL formats.

Although 4K content is now widely available via streaming and Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc, 4K TV broadcast standards are in the early stages of implementation. TVs that are 4K-compliant must support analog video formats as long as analog video playback devices are in use.

8K resolution streaming and broadcasting is now a thing as well, although its high price holds it back from mainstream adoption.

Eventually, you may no longer use analog video devices, but that day isn’t there quite yet.

#NTSC #PAL #Matter #HDTV


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